The history of the modern library started thousands of years ago. Keeping important materials available for use has been a practice since written documents were created. In fact, there is evidence of library classification systems as far back as 1900 BC in Nippur. The libraries of the ancient world were the foundation for today’s modern library. The modern library operates on a complex library catalog system. Both hard-copy materials and digital materials are made available in the library, and all these materials need to be organized and cataloged properly and consistently. Appreciating how the modern library came into existence and how it operates takes some knowledge of its ancient ancestors.
The earliest libraries were mostly private and consisted of important documents. Civil codes, laws, language guides, vocabulary lists, government and religious records, and myths and legends were the most common types of documents in early libraries. Many of these documents were written on stone tablets. Mesopotamia probably has the most evidence of early libraries, but very early libraries in China and other areas have also been discovered. Because most of the general population did not read or write, libraries were reserved for those who were highly educated. This would include the ruling classes and the most prominent religious and scientific minds. The remains of these ancient libraries have provided the world today with a wealth of information about the ancient world.
Great Ancient Libraries
The greatest and most famous library in the ancient world was the library of Alexandria in Egypt. The library was a great center of scholarship and was a prominent establishment throughout the Ptolemaic dynasty. There was even an early cataloging system at Alexandria. When Egypt was conquered by Rome in 30 BC, the library fell from prominence, but many of the records were fortunately preserved. In Greece, libraries really took off. Instead of simply institutional and government records, libraries in Greece had written books. Libraries began to pop up more frequently, and Rome established the first public libraries. Each Roman emperor tried to outshine his predecessor by creating a bigger and better library.
The first public library in Rome was created by Pollio during the time of Julius Caesar. Pollio, a famous lieutenant of Caesar’s, built the Anla Libertatis, a public library meant to rival the library at Alexandria. The design separated Greek and Latin texts from one another, a design which would be replicated in subsequent libraries. Libraries continued to be important throughout the middle ages, Renaissance, and neoclassical periods.
The Modern Library
In 1783 James Madison proposed creating the first congressional library. In 1876 the American Library Association was formed and Melvil Dewey established his decimal classification system. Public libraries had become increasingly numerous after the Civil War, due in large part to women’s clubs who donated their private collections and raised money to open public libraries. As the network of public libraries grew so did the number of materials housed in libraries. While classification systems had been in place for years, the system needed to get more complex as inventory grew and libraries operated together instead of as independent entities.
The modern library catalog system operates on multiple platforms. Most English speaking libraries use the MARC digital catalog system. While there is an automated and digital system, it still requires plenty of human involvement. Books are cataloged according to many different aspects, including author, genre, title, year of publication, edition, and others. It can be difficult for a library to keep up with all the cataloging needs. They often outsource cataloging to outside library services that can handle the metadata and keep the catalog updated.
Hello blogoolians, I am collating a huge list of blog promotion resources to help you promote your blogs across the World Wide Web! The list is in no particular order and will continue to grow when I discover new methods. There are two lists, one for free blog promotion methods and one for paid blog promotion methods.
Please note that this list is for FREE options only.
Every man and his dog knows what Facebook is so I’m not going to explain this one but say just one thing: Get a Facebook page for your blog! Get your friends to click like and each one that does a link will be posted so all their friends can see… and so on.
Sams verdict: A Facebook page is essential to any blog.
Just about every man and his dog knows what Twitter is so I’m not going to explain this one either but say just one thing: Get a Twitter account for your blog! Link it to your blog so that a message gets send out to your Twitter followers every time you make a post on your blog.
Sams verdict: A Twitter account is essential to any blog.
Twiends is a great way to find Twitter followers who are interested in the same things you are. For example, you can add “blogging” to your interests and then it will list all those people who also have “blogging” as an interest. It also provides the ability to gain Facebook fans or turn your credits into website views.
Sams verdict: Please Follow the Rules and Best Practices provided by Twitter. It has the ability to drastically boost your twitter followers so if your new to Twitter it might be a good way to get you started. Be careful to use it in moderation because Twitter may ban your account if you go crazy following and unfollowing hundreds of people everyday. Twitter stats that “every user can follow 2000 people total. Once you’ve followed 2000 users, there are limits to the number of additional users you can follow: this limit is different for every user and is based on your ratio of followers to following.” Obviously celebrities are once again exception to the rules with Tiger Woods getting 130,000 or so followers in his first few days!
With stats like Pinoyexchange has 402,938 users, 51,457,768 posts, and 6759 online users (when I last looked). And to top that registration is free! Who is going to argue with that promoting?
Sams verdict: Gave me 75 visits (322 page views) during the first 5 weeks.
Blinklist is like iTunes for web pages. You can upload your favourites (bookmarks in your browser) and share any of those favourites with others who are also on blinklist. You can add friends and view their bookmarks.
Sams verdict: Gave my blog 8 visits (32 page views) during the first 5 weeks.
Blogoola is a relatively new website which allows bloggers to list thier blogs and represent your country in your niche area. This is appealing to those passionate about their country or blog topic. With over 500 signups from 29 different countries in its first few weeks it certainly has the potential to reach a worldwide audience.
Sams verdict: Free signup is worth it just to get free links to your blog and expose yourself to over 50 countries currently listed.
Technorati is a free blog directory that has been around for a while (around 1,192,108 blogs listed).
Sams verdict: Took a long time to get my blog listed, almost 3 weeks! Not sure if it is bringing much traffic yet. I will keep this space updated.
Great site to share your blog posts and share (Digg) other blog posts. Definitely one to check out especially if you have good networking skills.
Sams verdict: Not sure if it is bringing much traffic yet. I will keep this space updated.
Delicious is a leading social bookmarking site where you can upload your favourites and share them with others. Signup is free but you need a yahoo email address.
Sams verdict: Looks like a good way to promote your blog posts. To be honest I haven’t really used it that much. I will keep this space updated.
List of free blog promotion directories:
Sams verdict: The higher the Google Page Rank (PR#) the better! Signup to BLOGOOLA for the full list of blog directories.
List of free blog promotion forums:
Sams verdict: Answering and posting questions in blog forums with links back to your blog will definitely bring more people to your blog! Be sure to include a link to your blog in your signature. Signup to BLOGOOLA for the full list of blog forums.
List of high PR blogs to add comments:
Sams verdict: Answering questions and commenting on other blogs with high PR and dofollow with links back to your blog will definitely bring more people to your blog! Signup to BLOGOOLA for the full list of high PR blogs.
List of free social bookmarking sites:
Sams verdict: Social bookmarking sites are useful to organize, store and manage bookmarks of resources online. Add bookmarks for your blog posts and tags and build friends in the areas of your blog niche. This may take some time but will definitely pay off in the long run.
List of free blog and article promotion sites:
Sams verdict: Submit your blog posts and articles to these websites and share them across all the social medias sites to gain exposure and hope something goes viral. Signup to BLOGOOLA for the full list of article promotion sites.
If you would like to appear in this lists please contact us.
BLOGOOLA takes no responsibility or liability for the accuracy or misuse of any of the information contained within this blog promotion article. Please use this information carefully and at your own risk.
Thanks for reading and I hope it helps you promote your blogs!
No matter how deeply we are immersed in the age of high technology electronic reading gizmos and on-line articles, there are times when nothing is better than the old fashioned feeling of leafing through the pages of a real, tangible magazine. It is still the epitome of true relaxation to kick back, leisurely flip a page and settle in to the daydreams evoked by the articles, photographs and advertisements. The selection of publications available today is astounding, with a magazine for women from every walk of life, and covering every imaginable interest. From health and fitness to decorating or parenting, regardless of what topics suit your fancy, a plethora of subject matter is readily available within the covers of Canadian magazines and popular publications from the United States and elsewhere.
According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, the top ten Canadian magazines are representative of the variety available. The majority of these are strongly targeting a market base of women. From first to last, the highest circulation rates during the last half of 2011 were What’s Cooking (a publication from Kraft Foods), Reader’s Digest, Chatelaine, Canadian Living, Maclean’s, Canadian House & Home, Style at Home, Clean Eating, Coup de Pouce, and Oxygen Women’s Fitness.
The top ten are just the tip of the proverbial iceberg, though, when it comes to what is available. You can indulge your interest in almost any subject with magazines chock-full of informative and entertaining articles. A large variety of categories exist, covering any number of personal interests, compilations of general interest content and unique niche topics. While most publications available to the Canadian market are in English, there are many offered in French as well, such as Loulou, Châtelaine and Chez-Soi.
One hugely popular category of magazines for women deals with hearth and home. Lifestyle issues, parenting, home decoration, recipes and a host of other general interest subjects are featured in the pages of top-selling publications such as Redbook, More, The Ladies’ Home Journal, Good Housekeeping, Family Circle, Better Homes & Gardens and Parents Magazine. Personal improvement and health issues are other hot topics, and there is a lot of valuable information available in such titles as Self, Fitness, Women’s Health and Prevention.
Fashion and style have long been favorite subjects for a magazine for women, and the pages of Elle, Glamour, Vogue, Harper’s Bazaar, Cosmopolitan and Loulou are teeming with fodder for the female fantasy. From the latest fashion spreads to fun questionnaires, their content is among the most enticing, including the high-end advertisements. Fans of arts and culture can find informative articles and current events from the likes of Vanity Fair, Entertainment Weekly and People. Cooking aficionados can get their fill of culinary goodness from Bon Appétit and Food & Wine, and bridal magazines such as Bride’s contain ideas and information for those with weddings on the horizon.
You might have heard of the terms Emulator and Rom when browsing online, but you may not know what they are all about. Actually, Rom is software operating on a videogame cartridge, although you can download these ROMs from the internet easily. The fact is that the ROMs are taken out of the cartridge by copying them onto CDs and then uploading them on the net. Special devices are used for copying ROMs this way. It is just like you get versions of movies and songs online for download. They are available on ‘free ROMs and Emulators’ websites.
You need to know if using ROMs this way is legal in your country or not. They may come into piracy for this matter. For example, if you own the game you can upload and make it available for free, but if not, you can only put it up for 24 hours and will have to delete it after that. This is when you can go to any free ROMs and Emulators website to download them. The next thing after you have downloaded a ROM on your PC is how to make the idle-sitting computer ‘know’ the way to operate it! It is then that ‘emulators’ come in.
Emulators are programs that enable you to run not-the-latest video games like Super Nintendo or Atari on PC or mobile. You can even go for Nintendo NES on Gameboy Advance. These games are ofcourse the actual ROMs (Read-Only-Memory). If you wish to start off, then you must decide which system you want to use. We can take 8-bit Nintendo here. For this, you should go to the NES Emulators web page and download any one of the emulators, though NESticle is a trusted and tried one. Once you have downloaded this emulator on your PC, you will have to ‘unzip’ them with the ‘extract’ option. Then you will have to go to the NES ROMs page to select your Nintendo game and download it to the NESticle directory.
The rest comes down easy. You will need to run your chosen emulator program and select the “Load ROM” or “open ROM” option from your file tab. Now just play the ROM you want to! You can also try out your hands at tweaking you emulator by assigning it different key controls, put up a controller, and also challenge your friends to online games. You may still come across some trouble because of system error and for this you will need to search on tips to solve your problem.
If free ROMs and Emulators have already improved your experience you may wish to look for more games. Some Japanese games were later modified for English-speaking users. Mario 2 and Final Fantasy have already been translated in many languages. A very good feature of emulator is that it lets you save your state or ‘spot’ as many times as you wish. If you have grown tired or sleepy just save it and reload it next time to start off from exactly where you left.
No matter if you are looking for information on free ROMs and Emulators or you want Super Nintendo free ROMs and Emulators, GamersBin is your one stop destination.
1. Choose an online casino name identical to the domain name
First, the name of the online casino should be the same as the domain name the operator chooses. It would be confusing for players to access an internet link that is different from the name they see on the casino site’s home page. Operators who have already thought about a casino name can purchase the same domain name from online companies like GoDaddy.
2. Pick an unique and memorable casino name that will easily be indexed by search engines
The second and extremely important aspect when an operator chooses an online casino name is using words that can easily be indexed by search engines like Google or Bing. Some entrepreneurs could believe that if they choose a name formed of very popular words (for example, “bestcasino123.com”), people will easily find it. Unfortunately, search engines like Google or Bing rank sites depending on the volume and quality of their content, and on how long they have been present on the internet. So, if some of these popular sites (for example, Bloomberg or igamingsuppliers) use the keywords “best casino” in their content, they will appear higher on search result pages. If this should happen, it will be very difficult for players to even find a casino named “bestcasino123”in search results.
On the other hand, if operators choose a name like “bestcasino123”, it will not stand out from the crowd. This means that people cannot remember it as a brand. Furthermore, a domain and casino name that uses such simple, popular words would cost a lot of money, since exact match domains are usually very expensive.
In order to avoid this problem, operators should choose an online casino name that is unique and memorable. A great casino name would be one that contains words related to the casino industry, and which also invites players to have a good time. For example, an appropriate casino name could be “wonderbet777”, or “felizcasino” (Spanish for “happy casino”). These names give the players hints that they could miraculously win money online, and also get in a good mood just by playing at that casino. A unique name that makes players feel good when they think about it will keep them coming back.
3. Choose a name that will match the language your clients speak
Another important aspect when choosing an online casino name is the language in which the words are written. If operators are not sure about the location of their future customers, they could write their domain and casino name in English. English is still the most popular language on the internet, and individuals from many countries around the world are accustomed with it. On the contrary, if casino entrepreneurs know that they will target a segment of players from a country or group of countries that speak the same language, they should choose the casino domain name in order to match words from that language.
Have you Googled yourself lately? You should. Most people are branding themselves these days, so having a consistent, first page Google presence is essential and a no-brainer. You want people to find you quickly and easily, right? Well, here’s how you can get yourself listed with your name and picture on the first page anytime anyone Googles you.
1. Create a Google account. You probably already have one if you have a gmail account. Just go to www.google.com. At the right top of the page is a “Sign In” link. Click it.
2. If you have an account, type in your email address and password. If not, create a new account. You’ll see that option below the sign in box.
3. Once you’ve created a Google account and have confirmation, Sign In.
4. Your Google Account Page will open. On the top of the page is your Profile area. Edit your Profile to include a photo, professional bio and external links to your website and social media sites.
5. Once you’re happy with your profile, hit the submit button. You should see a message on the top of the page that says, “Your profile is eligible to be featured in Google search results.” If you do, you’re finished. If you get another message saying you need more information to be featured, then take another minute or so to edit more information into your profile.
6. Google yourself. On the first page at the bottom, you should see your name as a link to your Google profile, you pix and other links to your other social media sites.
How easy was that? Feel free to share this little gold nugget of information with your friends!
Main Areas: Techical analysis of the capital markets, writing, editing, product analysis, white papers, sales copy,
Best Sellers: The Art of Kamangari Paintings in Kutch, Where’s my Bone?, The Art of Wall Paintings in Gujarat
Career Focus: Business Owner, Content Writer, Book writer, Editor, Technical Analyst in the Capital Markets
Affiliation: Certified by the Stock Exchange Board of India in Stock Trading and Mutual Funds
Editor for published coffee table book “The Art of Kamangari Paintings in Kutch” launched in association with the Museum of Kutch (A State Government of Gujarat initiative) in November, 2010 and currently editing draft for upcoming book – The Art of Wall Paintings in Gujarat to be printed and released in end 2012/early-2013. Regular travel contributor to Pet magazine – “Where’s my Bone?” since October 2010. Have been invited to write for many travel and financial websites including Moneycontrol.com, MSN Contribute, Yahoo! India, etc since late-2008. Currently writing one book (fiction) and one screenplay for an English movie – both work-in-progress. Available for short-term travel assignments, especially travel assignments.
Currently heading a team of technical writers, content writers and junior editors – Our activities include researching different subjects, writing on varied topics, editing the compositions and uploading the content (if required) to the concerned site. We have been providing content for over six years now and samples are available on request. We specialize in articles on business, finance, global news and the stock market, education, personal finance, pets, health, product testing and reviews, travel, psychology, real estate and foreclosures, and posting daily blogs on sites. In-depth knowledge of WordPress and other blogging platforms. Our articles are 100% original and pass the Copyscape Test process. We have eight copywriters, two editors and two professional writers in English Literature and Psychology on our panel as well. We have experience writing short articles (250-600 words), medium sized articles (1000-2000 words), longer articles (10,000+ words) and Ebooks of over 100 pages as well.
Numerous organizations and companies have started to make ‘speaking in English’ a mandatory even when you apply for a job or go to attend an interview. It is important for one to acquire the English language as if it were their own mother tongue. Speaking in English comfortably and flawlessly will take some time and you’ve accepted it but can you neutralize your accent?
Well, Yes! Yes you can.
How to go about it?
Start by implanting a few regular practices in your day-to-day lifestyle. The more you practice, the quicker the learning process will end and soon you will be able to speak like a native English speaker. Don’t bother about whether you want to adapt the British or the American accent, instead aim at adapting correct English.
5 Vital Steps Process:
Observation – Carefully observe the mouth movements of those who speak in English fluently. Slowly and softly repeat what they just said in the same manner (imitate). This will help you catch the intonation and rhythm of their speech.
Slow Down – Yes, of course, it is exciting to have adapted to a language but try to speak slowly until you have a grip on the accent and tempo. Don’t worry about your listener getting annoyed with your slow speech. It’s better to speak more slowly than to speak in wrong English.
Music for the soul – Listen to slow and soothing English numbers that will give you a chance to listen and understand the pronunciation of the words as well as the accent being used in the sound track. Try not to get too influenced by such songs and maintain the accent you are comfortable in.
Use the Dictionary – Familiarize yourself well enough with the words that bother you. Lay emphasis on words that you just cannot pronounce. Use the dictionary and look up for the correct pronunciation of words that have got you going bonkers.
Read Aloud? – It has been proven with significant evidence that reading aloud in English on a daily basis over a brief period of three months develops strong mouth muscles, which is extremely essential especially while learning and adapting a new language.